Levitikus 16

Adu-Gyamfi, Yaw, The Live Goat Ritual in Leviticus 16: Scriptura 112, 2013, 1-10.

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Published Abstract: The live goat ritual in Leviticus 16 has, for many decades, attracted debate in biblical scholarship. However, the main focus has often been on the identity of Azazel. This article examines some aspects of the live goat ritual in Leviticus 16: (1) the use of two hands rather than the usual one hand laid over the head of the goat; (2) the content of the confession over the goat; (3) the purpose of the rite; (4) whether the ritual is a sacrifice or something else; and (5) the significance of the ritual. I contend that the two hands used are representational, that the ritual is a unique sacrifice, and that the ritual symbolized a complete eradication of sin from the community.

Britt, Brian/Creehan, Patrick, Chiasmus in Leviticus 16,29–17,11: ZAW 112, 2000, 398–400.

Parker, B.J., The Restoration of Shalom: An Intertextual Reading of Leviticus 16 and Psalm 65, in: The Evangelical Quarterly 87, 2015, 252-263.

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Adapted from published abstract: In this paper P. seeks to explore the intertextual relationship between The Day of Purification (or Day of Atonement) in Leviticus 16 and Psalm 65. P. adopts Ziva Ben-Porat’s approach to reading intertextually as the approach allows the exegete to attempt to balance concerns of both the reader and historical development. P. argues that markers in the text of Psalm 65 such as כפר, creation theology, and עטרת שנת, activate both the entire text of Leviticus 16 and the theological world it connotes. The outcome is a psalm that draws on a rich theological tradition that became especially important in the post-exilic period.

Stökl Ben Ezra, Daniel, Heiligste Versöhnung. Jom Kippur im antiken Judentum und Christentum: BiKi 69, 2014, 102–107.

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Abstract: The Yom Kippur is the central feast and fast of Judaism until today. The ritual as described in Leviticus plays a basic role in post-biblical Judaism and Christianity. S. B. E. describes its reception in the New Testament (e.g., Acts 27:9-10) and Early Christianity (Epistle of Barnabas, John Chrysostom, Adversus Judaeos). He presents a detailed comparison of Mark 15:6-15 and its synoptic parallel in Matt 27:15-26. The changes that Matthew introduces in the Markan text as his source demonstrate that Matthew wants to allude to the Day of Atonement blood ritual in the temple.

Watts, James W., From Ark of the Covenant to Torah Scroll: Ritualizing Israel’s Iconic Texts, in: MacDonald, Nathan (ed.), Ritual Innovation in the Hebrew Bible and Early Judaism (BZAW 468), Berlin; New York: de Gruyter, 2016, 21–34.

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The builders of Jerusalem’s Second Temple made a remarkable ritual innovation. They left the holy of holies empty. They apparently rebuilt the other furniture of the temple, but did not remake the ark of the covenant that, according to tradition, had occupied the inner sanctum of Israel’s desert tabernacle and of Solomon’s Temple. The fact that the ark of the covenant went missing has excited speculation ever since. Watts considers how biblical literature dealt with this ritual innovation. Why did the Pentateuch, a Second-Temple-era work at least in its final form, describe in elaborate detail the manufacture and use of a ritual object (Exod 25:10 –22; 37:1–9; 40:20 –21; Lev 16:12–16) that did not exist in its own time? How did this Torah support and validate Second Temple rituals that deviated from its prescriptions in such a central way? Watts’ thesis is that the Pentateuch was shaped to lay the basis for Torah scrolls to replace the ark of the covenant as the iconic focus of Israel’s worship.

 

 

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